16 Steps of Hindu Puja

Puja, an integral part of Hindu practice, is an artful technique that fosters spiritual growth by harmonizing action (karma), devotion (bhakti), knowledge (jnāna), and introspection (rāja or dhyāna). It combines physical, verbal, mental, and vibrational elements in worship, making it a potent form of devotion. Puja, which translates to adoration or worship, is a profound way to establish a personal connection with the Divine.

The Shodashopachara Puja

The traditional 16 step puja, known as the Shodashopachara Puja, is a Sanskrit ritual that can be performed daily. It fosters discipline and devotion, allowing the devotee to dedicate a specific time each day to remember and connect with their chosen deity. These steps act as vessels for the devotee’s faith and spiritual energy, enabling direct communication with the Divine.

The Shodashopachara Puja comprises 16 steps, with five steps central to the worship of the senses: touch, hearing, smell, sight, and taste. These steps involve offerings to the deity, invoking their attributes, and chanting relevant mantras. The five senses and their corresponding offerings are gandham (touch), pushpam (hearing), dhoopam (smell), deepam (sight), and naivedyam (taste).

For special occasions, festivals, or significant life events, the 16 step puja can be extended over a longer period, sometimes lasting for hours. Each step is elaborated upon with more time, allowing for more offerings, hymns, and acts of devotion to be presented to the Divine. Often, a priest guides these rituals, ensuring a meticulous observance of the puja.

16- steps of Hindu Puja

Dhyānam & Āvāhanam

The devotee meditates on the deity and invites them into their heart and home.


A seat is offered to the divine form, symbolizing their welcome.

Pādyam, Ārghyam & Āchamanyam

Water is offered to wash the deity’s feet and hands, signifying respect. Water is also given to the deity to cleanse their face and mouth.


Honey, sugar, ghee, curd, or water is offered to the deity for refreshment.


The deity is bathed with water or panchāmrit, a mixture of five sacred substances.


Clothing is offered to adorn the deity.


A sacred thread is presented to the deity.


Ornaments are placed on the deity, accompanied by songs of praise.


Sandalwood paste, kumkum, and haldi are applied to the deity, signifying touch.


Flowers are offered to decorate the deity, and their names are chanted.


Incense is lit and offered to please the deity, invoking smell.


Another lamp is lit and presented to the deity, symbolizing sight.


Fresh food is offered to the deity, and water is given to cleanse their mouth.


Betel nut and leaves are offered as mouth fresheners, and offerings of coins or money are made.

Karpoora Niranjanam

An ārati (ceremonial light) is shown to the deity.

Pradakshina & Namaskāram

The devotee circumambulates the deity, symbolizing the central role of the divine in their life. They bow to the deity, seeking forgiveness for any errors and expressing gratitude.

The puja concludes with a closing mantra, acknowledging the offering of all actions and intentions to the Divine.

Hindu puja is a sacred journey that involves deep spiritual connection, purification, and the harmonious alignment of the senses. Each step in the puja process is laden with symbolism and devotion, fostering

The puja concludes with a closing mantra, acknowledging the offering of all actions and intentions to the Divine.

  • The devotee recites a closing mantra to signify the selfless offering of all actions to the Divine.

  • Mantra: kāyena vācā manase indriyairvā buddhy ātmanā vā prakrteh svabhāvāt | karomi yad yat sakalam parasmai nārāyanāyeti samarpayāmi ||

Hindu puja is a profoundly spiritual and structured practice that fosters a direct connection between the devotee and the Divine, reinforcing devotion, selflessness, and purity of intention. Each step is meticulously designed to create a sacred and harmonious atmosphere for communion with the Divine.